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Prof. J. William McEvoy – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
Association of Cardiovascular Health Metrics with Risk of Transition to Hypertension in Non-Hypertensive Young Adults
CONCLUSIONS: CVH metrics can stratify the risk for hypertension in non-hypertensive adults aged 20-39 years. These findings have important public health implications for the screening and prevention of hypertension. Improving CVH metrics may prevent the risk of developing hypertension in young adults.
Midlife determinants of healthy cardiovascular aging: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study
CONCLUSIONS: More-stringent levels of modifiable risk factors in midlife beyond current clinical practice and guidelines were associated with preserved cardiovascular health in older age.
CONCLUSIONS: In adults with diabetes, intensive BP control reduced NT-proBNP without increasing hs-cTnT, supporting the benefits and safety of intensive BP control in adults with diabetes. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT00145925.
Contextualizing National Policies Regulating Access to Low-Dose Aspirin in America and Europe Using the Full Report of a Transatlantic Patient Survey of Aspirin in Preventive Cardiology
Background Aspirin is widely administered to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, appropriate use of aspirin depends on patient understanding of its risks, benefits, and indications, especially where aspirin is available over the counter (OTC). Methods and Results We did a survey of patient-reported 10-year cardiovascular risk; aspirin therapy status; form of aspirin access (OTC versus prescription); and knowledge of the risks, benefits, and role of aspirin in CVD prevention....
Major disparities in patient-reported adherence compared to objective assessment of adherence using mass spectrometry: A prospective study in a tertiary-referral hypertension clinic
CONCLUSION: In patients attending a tertiary hypertension clinic, the combined use of spot urine mass spectrometry and self-reporting identifies higher rates of nonadherence when compared to either modality alone. Both techniques should be combined for more accurate detection of medication adherence.
Estimation of recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular event risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease: the updated SMART2 algorithm
CONCLUSION: The SMART2 risk score provides an updated, validated tool for the prediction of recurrent ASCVD events in patients with established ASCVD across European and non-European populations. The use of this tool could allow for a more personalized approach to secondary prevention based upon quantitative rather than qualitative estimates of residual risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Among US adults, increased values of glycated albumin and HbA1c were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, particularly in persons with diagnosed diabetes. Glycated albumin may be a useful alternative test of glycemia.
Are behaviour change techniques and intervention features associated with effectiveness of digital cardiac rehabilitation programmes? A systematic review protocol
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a complex intervention that aims to stabilise, slow, or reverse the progression of CVD and improve patients' functional status and quality of life. Digitally delivered CR has been shown to be effective and can overcome many of the access barriers associated with traditional centre-based delivered CR programmes. However, there is a limited understanding of the behaviour change...
Glycated albumin and HbA1c as markers of lower extremity disease inUS adults with and without diabetes
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the importance of diabetes prevention and glycemic control in adults with diabetes to reduce the burden of lower extremity disease.
The Diastolic Blood Pressure J-Curve in Hypertension Management: Links and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of hypertension has changed dramatically over the last century, with recent trials informing clinical guidelines that recommend aiming for lower blood pressure (BP) targets than ever before. However, a "J"- or "U-shaped curve" in the association between diastolic BP and cardiovascular events has been observed in epidemiological studies, suggesting that both high diastolic BPs and diastolic BPs below a certain nadir are associated with higher risk of...
Establishing target systolic and diastolic blood pressure in diabetic patients with hypertension: what do we need to consider?
INTRODUCTION: The optimum target for systolic and diastolic blood pressure remains divisive. In particular, the conflicting outcomes of the SPRINT and ACCORD trials have led to a divergence of guideline-recommended blood pressure targets for adults with diabetes.
Aspirin's antithrombotic effects have a long-established place in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and its traditional use as a core therapy for secondary prevention of CVD is well recognized. However, with the advent of newer antiplatelet agents and an increasing understanding of aspirin's bleeding risks, its role across the full spectrum of modern CVD prevention has become less certain. As a consequence, recent trials have begun investigating aspirin-free strategies in secondary...
Glycemic excursions and subclinical cardiac damage in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE Trial
We found that 1,5-anhydroglucitol-a marker of glucose excursions-was not independently associated with subclinical cardiac damage, nor with vascular outcomes, in the ADVANCE Trial. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide provided better prognostic information regarding vascular risk in diabetes than 1,5-anhydroglucitol.
Aspirin for cardiovascular disease prevention among adults in the United States: Trends, prevalence, and participant characteristics associated with use
CONCLUSION: : Aspirin use has slightly declined over the last decade. A significant proportion of adults aged ≥70 years reported primary prevention aspirin use in 2019. Since current guidelines do not recommend primary prevention aspirin use among adults aged ≥70 years, such use should be discouraged.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There may be potential differences in CMS payments between men and women cardiologists, which appear to stem from gender differences in the number and types of charges submitted. The mechanisms behind these differences merit further research, both to understand why such gender differences exist and also to facilitate reductions in pay disparities.
Associations of High-Sensitivity Troponin and Natriuretic Peptide Levels With Outcomes After Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering: Findings From the SPRINT Randomized Clinical Trial
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Intensive SBP control led to large absolute differences in death and HF among patients with abnormal hscTnT and NTproBNP levels. These findings demonstrate that risk associated with elevation of these biomarkers is modifiable with intensive BP control. A prospective, randomized clinical trial is needed to evaluate whether these biomarkers may help guide selection of patients for intensive SBP lowering.
INTERASPIRE: an International Survey of Coronary Patients; Their Cardiometabolic, Renal and Biomarker Status; and the Quality of Preventive Care Delivered in All WHO Regions : In Partnership with the World Heart Federation, European Society of Cardiology, Asia Pacific Society of Cardiology, InterAmerican Society of Cardiology, and PanAfrican Society of Cardiology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the INTERASPIRE scientific protocol-an international survey of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD).
Hypertension guidelines and coronary artery calcification among South Asians: Results from MASALA and MESA
Untreated hypertension may contribute to increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in South Asians (SA). We assessed HTN prevalence among untreated adults free of baseline ASCVD from the MASALA & MESA studies. The proportion of participants who received discordant recommendations regarding antihypertensive pharmacotherapy use by the 2017-ACC/AHA and JNC7 Guidelines across CAC score categories in each race/ethnic group was calculated. Compared with untreated MESA participants...
Assessment of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring to Guide Statin Therapy Allocation According to Risk-Enhancing Factors: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cross-sectional study, among participants with CAC scores of 0, the presence of risk-enhancing factors was generally not associated with an overall ASCVD risk that was higher than the recommended treatment threshold for the initiation of statin therapy. The use of CAC scoring was associated with significant improvements in the reclassification and discrimination of incident ASCVD. The results of this study support the utility of CAC scoring as an adjunct to...
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG, medication status at 5 years had a significant impact on 10-year mortality. Patients on OMT with guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapy at 5 years had a survival benefit. (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; Taxus Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries...
Interhospital and interindividual variability in secondary prevention: a comparison of outpatients with a history of chronic coronary syndrome versus outpatients with a history of acute coronary syndrome (the iASPIRE Study)
CONCLUSIONS: Despite international secondary prevention guidelines broadly recommending the same risk factor targets for all adults with CHD, we found marked differences in outpatient risk factor control and management on the basis of hospital location and index CHD presentation type (acute vs chronic). These findings highlight the need to reduce hospital-level and patient-level variability in preventive care to improve outcomes; a lesson that should inform CHD prevention programmes in Ireland...
SCORE2 risk prediction algorithms: new models to estimate 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in Europe
CONCLUSION: SCORE2-a new algorithm derived, calibrated, and validated to predict 10-year risk of first-onset CVD in European populations-enhances the identification of individuals at higher risk of developing CVD across Europe.
Impact of Body Composition Indices on Ten-year Mortality After Revascularization of Complex Coronary Artery Disease (From the Syntax Extended Survival Trial)
Numerous studies have demonstrated a paradoxical association between higher baseline body mass index (BMI) and lower long-term mortality risk after coronary revascularization, known as the "obesity paradox", possibly relying on the single use of BMI. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the SYNTAX trial comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients...
Association Between Omega-3 Fatty Acid Levels and Risk for Incident Major Bleeding Events and Atrial Fibrillation: MESA
Background Randomized trials of pharmacologic strength omega-3 fatty acid (n3-FA)-based therapies suggest a dose-dependent cardiovascular benefit. Whether blood n3-FA levels also mediate safety signals observed in these trials, such as increased bleeding and atrial fibrillation (AF), remains uncertain. We hypothesized that higher baseline n3-FA levels would be associated with incident bleeding and AF events in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), which included a population free of...
A survey of general practitioners' knowledge and clinical practice in relation to valvular heart disease
INTRODUCTION: General practice has a key role in diagnosing patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) and referring them to appropriate services.
A cohort study and meta-analysis of isolated diastolic hypertension: searching for a threshold to guide treatment
CONCLUSION: The lack of consistent excess in CAC or CVD suggests that emphasis on healthy lifestyle rather than drug therapy is sufficient among the millions of middle-aged or older adults who now meet the 2017 ACC/AHA criteria for IDH, though they require follow-up for incident systolic hypertension. These findings may not extrapolate to adults younger than 40 years, motivating further study in this age group.
Comparison of the Relation of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness With Incident Heart Failure With Reduced Versus Preserved Ejection Fraction (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA])
Increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is associated with heart failure (HF) in previous studies, but it is not known whether the association of cIMT differs between HF with reduced (HFrEF) versus preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We studied 6699 participants (mean age 62 ± 10 years, 47% male, and 38% white) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with baseline cIMT measurements. We classified HF events as HFrEF (EF <50%) or HFpEF (EF ≥ 50%) at the time of diagnosis....
Higher Prevalence of Concurrent Thrombocytopenia in Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit
CONCLUSION: Safe delivery of dialysis care in the ICU is paramount and creating awareness of potential risks such as concurrent TCP in patients receiving CRRT should be part of this care.
Ten-year all-cause mortality according to smoking status in patients with severe coronary artery disease undergoing surgical or percutaneous revascularization
CONCLUSION: Current smokers had a higher adjusted risk of 10-year all-cause mortality, whereas former smokers did not. The treatment effect of CABG vs. PCI did not differ significantly according to smoking status.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NT-proBNP is independently associated with CVD and mortality across SBP, DBP, and PP categories and helps identify subjects at the highest risk. Participants with stage 1 hypertension but elevated NT-proBNP had greater cardiovascular risk compared with those with stage 2 SBP but lower NT-proBNP. Future studies are needed to evaluate use of biomarker-based strategies for CVD risk assessment to assist with initiation or intensification of BP treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Three of 4 phases of UNGD activity were associated with hospitalization for HF in a large sample of patients with HF in an area of active UNGD, with similar findings by HFrEF versus HFpEF status. Older patients with HF seem particularly vulnerable to adverse health impacts from UNGD activity.
Linear and Nonlinear Mendelian Randomization Analyses of the Association Between Diastolic Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Events: The J-Curve Revisited
CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of the genetic effect of DBP, we found no evidence for a nonlinear J- or U-shaped relationship between DBP and adverse CVD outcomes; including MI.
Association of Normal Systolic Blood Pressure Level With Cardiovascular Disease in the Absence of Risk Factors
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Beginning at an SBP level as low as 90 mm Hg, there appears to be a stepwise increase in the presence of coronary artery calcium and the risk of incident ASCVD with increasing SBP levels. These results highlight the importance of primordial prevention for SBP level increase and other traditional ASCVD risk factors, which generally seem to have similar trajectories of graded increase in risk within values traditionally considered to be normal.
Lifelong Aspirin for All in the Secondary Prevention of Chronic Coronary Syndrome: Still Sacrosanct or Is Reappraisal Warranted?
Four decades have passed since the first trial suggesting the efficacy of aspirin in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. Further trials, collectively summarized by the Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration, solidified the historical role of aspirin in secondary prevention. Although the benefit of aspirin in the immediate phase after a myocardial infarction remains incontrovertible, a number of emerging lines of evidence, discussed in this narrative review, raise some uncertainty...
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is independently associated with significantly increased oxidative stress as measured by GGT level. This association demonstrates effect modification by NAFLD status, suggesting that smoking may intensify CV risk in individuals with NAFLD.
Isolated Diastolic Hypertension in the UK Biobank: Comparison of ACC/AHA and ESC/NICE Guideline Definitions
The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline defines hypertension as a blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg, whereas the 2018 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and 2019 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines use a ≥140/90 mm Hg threshold. Our objective was to study the associations between isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), diagnosed using these 2 blood pressure thresholds, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large cohort of UK...