100 Years of Insulin
Jan 11, 2022On the 11th January 1922, the first ever injection of insulin was administered at Toronto General Hospital. Frederick Banting and Charles Best conducted their first clinical tests on a severely diabetic 14 year old boy, Leonard Thompson, who was essentially being kept...
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Prof. J. William McEvoy – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
Temporal trends in low-dose aspirin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in European adults with and without diabetes
CONCLUSION: Aspirin therapy for primary prevention of CVD has decreased over the last two decades. However, the drug remained used in individuals with and without diabetes and a large proportion of individuals started on aspirin therapy had no CVD risk factors.
Harnessing digital health to optimise the delivery of guideline-based cardiac rehabilitation during COVID-19: an observational study
CONCLUSION: Outcomes from this study suggest that interdisciplinary digital CR programmes can be successfully implemented and help patients achieve guideline recommended lifestyle, medical and therapeutic targets.
Behaviour change techniques and intervention characteristics in digital cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
ABSTRACTEvidence suggests that digitally delivered cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is likely to be an effective alternative to centre-based CR. However, there is limited understanding of the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and intervention characteristics included in digital CR programmes. This systematic review aimed to identify the BCTs and intervention characteristics that have been used in digital CR programmes, and to study those associated with effective programmes. Twenty-five randomised...
Prevalence of Elevated NT-proBNP and its Prognostic Value by Blood Pressure Treatment and Control- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004
CONCLUSIONS: Among a general population of adults free of cardiovascular disease, NT-proBNP can provide additional prognostic information within and across categories of BP. Measurement of NT-proBNP may have potential for clinical use to optimize hypertension treatment.
Implications of the 2021 ESC cardiovascular risk classification among 283,000 European immigrants living in a low-risk region: a population-based analysis in Catalonia
CONCLUSIONS: In Catalonia, residents born in high- and very-high-risk European countries are at increased risk of coronary heart disease and newly diagnosed risk factors. Low-risk European countries may consider tailored prevention efforts, early screening of risk factors, and adequate healthcare resource planning to better address the health needs of men and women from higher-risk countries.
Background There have been limited data examining the age-dependent relationship of wide-range risk factors with the incidence of each subtype of cardiovascular disease (CVD) event. We assessed age-related associations between modifiable risk factors and the incidence of CVD. Methods and Results We analyzed 3 027 839 participants without a CVD history enrolled in the JMDC Claims Database (mean age, 44.8±11.0 years; 57.6% men). Each participant was categorized as aged 20 to 49 years (n=2 008...
Estimating individual lifetime risk of incident cardiovascular events in adults with Type 2 diabetes: an update and geographical calibration of the DIAbetes Lifetime perspective model (DIAL2)
CONCLUSION: The recalibrated DIAL2 model provides a useful tool for the prediction of CVD-free life expectancy and lifetime CVD risk for people with Type 2 diabetes without previous CVD in the European low- and moderate-risk regions. These long-term individualized measures of CVD risk are well suited for shared decision-making in clinical practice as recommended by the 2021 CVD ESC prevention guidelines.
Statin Use and Risk of Diabetes by Subclinical Atherosclerosis Burden (from a Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Report)
Although there is a significant reduction in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk with statins, a higher risk of diabetes mellitus has been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials. The risk of incident diabetes with statins may be heterogeneous by presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC). We evaluated participants without prevalent diabetes at baseline from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a prospective cohort study of subjects free of clinical cardiovascular disease...
Climate change is a worsening global crisis that will continue negatively impacting population health and well-being unless adaptation and mitigation interventions are rapidly implemented. Climate change-related cardiovascular disease is mediated by air pollution, increased ambient temperatures, vector-borne disease and mental health disorders. Climate change-related cardiovascular disease can be modulated by climate change adaptation; however, this process could result in significant health...
Management of Patients at Risk for and With Left Ventricular Thrombus: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
Despite the many advances in cardiovascular medicine, decisions concerning the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of left ventricular (LV) thrombus often remain challenging. There are only limited organizational guideline recommendations with regard to LV thrombus. Furthermore, management issues in current practice are increasingly complex, including concerns about adding oral anticoagulant therapy to dual antiplatelet therapy, the availability of direct oral anticoagulants as a potential...
Elevated NT-ProBNP as a Cardiovascular Disease Risk Equivalent: Evidence from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that it might be appropriate to manage adults with NT-proBNP ≥450 pg/mL as if they had a history of clinical cardiovascular disease.
Geographic disparity in 10-year mortality after coronary artery revascularization in the SYNTAXES trial
CONCLUSION: In the era of globalization, knowledge, and understanding of geographic disparity are of paramount importance for the correct interpretation of global studies.
Association of Cardiovascular Health Metrics With Risk of Transition to Hypertension in Non-Hypertensive Young Adults
CONCLUSIONS: CVH metrics can stratify the risk for hypertension in non-hypertensive adults aged 20-39 years. These findings have important public health implications for the screening and prevention of hypertension. Improving CVH metrics may prevent the risk of developing hypertension in young adults.
Midlife determinants of healthy cardiovascular aging: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study
CONCLUSIONS: More-stringent levels of modifiable risk factors in midlife beyond current clinical practice and guidelines were associated with preserved cardiovascular health in older age.
CONCLUSIONS: In adults with diabetes, intensive BP control reduced NT-proBNP without increasing hs-cTnT, supporting the benefits and safety of intensive BP control in adults with diabetes. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT00145925.
Contextualizing National Policies Regulating Access to Low-Dose Aspirin in America and Europe Using the Full Report of a Transatlantic Patient Survey of Aspirin in Preventive Cardiology
Background Aspirin is widely administered to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, appropriate use of aspirin depends on patient understanding of its risks, benefits, and indications, especially where aspirin is available over the counter (OTC). Methods and Results We did a survey of patient-reported 10-year cardiovascular risk; aspirin therapy status; form of aspirin access (OTC versus prescription); and knowledge of the risks, benefits, and role of aspirin in CVD prevention....
Major disparities in patient-reported adherence compared to objective assessment of adherence using mass spectrometry: A prospective study in a tertiary-referral hypertension clinic
CONCLUSION: In patients attending a tertiary hypertension clinic, the combined use of spot urine mass spectrometry and self-reporting identifies higher rates of nonadherence when compared to either modality alone. Both techniques should be combined for more accurate detection of medication adherence.
Estimation of recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular event risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease: the updated SMART2 algorithm
CONCLUSION: The SMART2 risk score provides an updated, validated tool for the prediction of recurrent ASCVD events in patients with established ASCVD across European and non-European populations. The use of this tool could allow for a more personalized approach to secondary prevention based upon quantitative rather than qualitative estimates of residual risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Among US adults, increased values of glycated albumin and HbA1c were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, particularly in persons with diagnosed diabetes. Glycated albumin may be a useful alternative test of glycemia.
Are behaviour change techniques and intervention features associated with effectiveness of digital cardiac rehabilitation programmes? A systematic review protocol
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a complex intervention that aims to stabilise, slow, or reverse the progression of CVD and improve patients' functional status and quality of life. Digitally delivered CR has been shown to be effective and can overcome many of the access barriers associated with traditional centre-based delivered CR programmes. However, there is a limited understanding of the behaviour change...
Glycated albumin and HbA1c as markers of lower extremity disease inUS adults with and without diabetes
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the importance of diabetes prevention and glycemic control in adults with diabetes to reduce the burden of lower extremity disease.
The Diastolic Blood Pressure J-Curve in Hypertension Management: Links and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of hypertension has changed dramatically over the last century, with recent trials informing clinical guidelines that recommend aiming for lower blood pressure (BP) targets than ever before. However, a "J"- or "U-shaped curve" in the association between diastolic BP and cardiovascular events has been observed in epidemiological studies, suggesting that both high diastolic BPs and diastolic BPs below a certain nadir are associated with higher risk of...
Establishing target systolic and diastolic blood pressure in diabetic patients with hypertension: what do we need to consider?
INTRODUCTION: The optimum target for systolic and diastolic blood pressure remains divisive. In particular, the conflicting outcomes of the SPRINT and ACCORD trials have led to a divergence of guideline-recommended blood pressure targets for adults with diabetes.
Aspirin's antithrombotic effects have a long-established place in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and its traditional use as a core therapy for secondary prevention of CVD is well recognized. However, with the advent of newer antiplatelet agents and an increasing understanding of aspirin's bleeding risks, its role across the full spectrum of modern CVD prevention has become less certain. As a consequence, recent trials have begun investigating aspirin-free strategies in secondary...
Glycemic excursions and subclinical cardiac damage in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE Trial
We found that 1,5-anhydroglucitol-a marker of glucose excursions-was not independently associated with subclinical cardiac damage, nor with vascular outcomes, in the ADVANCE Trial. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide provided better prognostic information regarding vascular risk in diabetes than 1,5-anhydroglucitol.
Aspirin for cardiovascular disease prevention among adults in the United States: Trends, prevalence, and participant characteristics associated with use
CONCLUSION: : Aspirin use has slightly declined over the last decade. A significant proportion of adults aged ≥70 years reported primary prevention aspirin use in 2019. Since current guidelines do not recommend primary prevention aspirin use among adults aged ≥70 years, such use should be discouraged.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There may be potential differences in CMS payments between men and women cardiologists, which appear to stem from gender differences in the number and types of charges submitted. The mechanisms behind these differences merit further research, both to understand why such gender differences exist and also to facilitate reductions in pay disparities.
Associations of High-Sensitivity Troponin and Natriuretic Peptide Levels With Outcomes After Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering: Findings From the SPRINT Randomized Clinical Trial
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Intensive SBP control led to large absolute differences in death and HF among patients with abnormal hscTnT and NTproBNP levels. These findings demonstrate that risk associated with elevation of these biomarkers is modifiable with intensive BP control. A prospective, randomized clinical trial is needed to evaluate whether these biomarkers may help guide selection of patients for intensive SBP lowering.
INTERASPIRE: an International Survey of Coronary Patients; Their Cardiometabolic, Renal and Biomarker Status; and the Quality of Preventive Care Delivered in All WHO Regions : In Partnership with the World Heart Federation, European Society of Cardiology, Asia Pacific Society of Cardiology, InterAmerican Society of Cardiology, and PanAfrican Society of Cardiology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the INTERASPIRE scientific protocol-an international survey of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD).
Hypertension guidelines and coronary artery calcification among South Asians: Results from MASALA and MESA
Untreated hypertension may contribute to increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in South Asians (SA). We assessed HTN prevalence among untreated adults free of baseline ASCVD from the MASALA & MESA studies. The proportion of participants who received discordant recommendations regarding antihypertensive pharmacotherapy use by the 2017-ACC/AHA and JNC7 Guidelines across CAC score categories in each race/ethnic group was calculated. Compared with untreated MESA participants...
Assessment of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring to Guide Statin Therapy Allocation According to Risk-Enhancing Factors: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cross-sectional study, among participants with CAC scores of 0, the presence of risk-enhancing factors was generally not associated with an overall ASCVD risk that was higher than the recommended treatment threshold for the initiation of statin therapy. The use of CAC scoring was associated with significant improvements in the reclassification and discrimination of incident ASCVD. The results of this study support the utility of CAC scoring as an adjunct to...
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG, medication status at 5 years had a significant impact on 10-year mortality. Patients on OMT with guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapy at 5 years had a survival benefit. (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; Taxus Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries...
Interhospital and interindividual variability in secondary prevention: a comparison of outpatients with a history of chronic coronary syndrome versus outpatients with a history of acute coronary syndrome (the iASPIRE Study)
CONCLUSIONS: Despite international secondary prevention guidelines broadly recommending the same risk factor targets for all adults with CHD, we found marked differences in outpatient risk factor control and management on the basis of hospital location and index CHD presentation type (acute vs chronic). These findings highlight the need to reduce hospital-level and patient-level variability in preventive care to improve outcomes; a lesson that should inform CHD prevention programmes in Ireland...
SCORE2 risk prediction algorithms: new models to estimate 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in Europe
CONCLUSION: SCORE2-a new algorithm derived, calibrated, and validated to predict 10-year risk of first-onset CVD in European populations-enhances the identification of individuals at higher risk of developing CVD across Europe.
Impact of Body Composition Indices on Ten-year Mortality After Revascularization of Complex Coronary Artery Disease (From the Syntax Extended Survival Trial)
Numerous studies have demonstrated a paradoxical association between higher baseline body mass index (BMI) and lower long-term mortality risk after coronary revascularization, known as the "obesity paradox", possibly relying on the single use of BMI. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the SYNTAX trial comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients...