Prof. J. William McEvoy – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
Higher Prevalence of Concurrent Thrombocytopenia in Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit
CONCLUSION: Safe delivery of dialysis care in the ICU is paramount and creating awareness of potential risks such as concurrent TCP in patients receiving CRRT should be part of this care.
Ten-year all-cause mortality according to smoking status in patients with severe coronary artery disease undergoing surgical or percutaneous revascularization
CONCLUSION: Current smokers had a higher adjusted risk of 10-year all-cause mortality, whereas former smokers did not. The treatment effect of CABG vs. PCI did not differ significantly according to smoking status.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NT-proBNP is independently associated with CVD and mortality across SBP, DBP, and PP categories and helps identify subjects at the highest risk. Participants with stage 1 hypertension but elevated NT-proBNP had greater cardiovascular risk compared with those with stage 2 SBP but lower NT-proBNP. Future studies are needed to evaluate use of biomarker-based strategies for CVD risk assessment to assist with initiation or intensification of BP treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Three of 4 phases of UNGD activity were associated with hospitalization for HF in a large sample of patients with HF in an area of active UNGD, with similar findings by HFrEF versus HFpEF status. Older patients with HF seem particularly vulnerable to adverse health impacts from UNGD activity.
A Linear and Non-Linear Mendelian Randomization Analysis of the Association Between Diastolic Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Events: The J Curve Revisited
Background: Recent clinical guidelines support intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment targets. However, observational data suggest that excessive diastolic BP (DBP) lowering might increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI); reflecting a J- or U-shaped relationship. Methods: We analyzed 47,407 participants from 5 cohorts (median age 60 years). First, to corroborate prior observational analyses, we used traditional statistical methods to test the shape of association between DBP and CVD....
Association of Normal Systolic Blood Pressure Level With Cardiovascular Disease in the Absence of Risk Factors
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Beginning at an SBP level as low as 90 mm Hg, there appears to be a stepwise increase in the presence of coronary artery calcium and the risk of incident ASCVD with increasing SBP levels. These results highlight the importance of primordial prevention for SBP level increase and other traditional ASCVD risk factors, which generally seem to have similar trajectories of graded increase in risk within values traditionally considered to be normal.
Lifelong Aspirin for All in the Secondary Prevention of Chronic Coronary Syndrome: Still Sacrosanct or Is Reappraisal Warranted?
Four decades have passed since the first trial suggesting the efficacy of aspirin in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. Further trials, collectively summarized by the Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration, solidified the historical role of aspirin in secondary prevention. Although the benefit of aspirin in the immediate phase after a myocardial infarction remains incontrovertible, a number of emerging lines of evidence, discussed in this narrative review, raise some uncertainty...
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is independently associated with significantly increased oxidative stress as measured by GGT level. This association demonstrates effect modification by NAFLD status, suggesting that smoking may intensify CV risk in individuals with NAFLD.
Isolated Diastolic Hypertension in the UK Biobank: Comparison of ACC/AHA and ESC/NICE Guideline Definitions
The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline defines hypertension as a blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg, whereas the 2018 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and 2019 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines use a ≥140/90 mm Hg threshold. Our objective was to study the associations between isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), diagnosed using these 2 blood pressure thresholds, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large cohort of UK...
CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and hs-CRP were independently associated with incident PAD in the general population, supporting the involvement of fibrosis and inflammation in the pathophysiology of PAD.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides lipid reference values for clinical biochemistry laboratories and clinicians working in Ireland. It is informative for public health initiatives wishing to target dyslipidaemia as a modifiable risk for cardiovascular disease and for investigators researching geographical and temporal variances in lipid parameters.
Background Circulating galectin-3 levels provide prognostic information in patients with established heart failure (HF), but the associations between galectin-3 levels and other incident cardiovascular events in asymptomatic individuals at midlife and when remeasured ≈15 years later are largely uncharacterized. Methods and Results Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we identified associations between plasma galectin-3 levels (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD increase in natural log...
Association of hypertension and antihypertensive treatment with COVID-19 mortality: a retrospective observational study
CONCLUSION: While hypertension and the discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment are suspected to be related to increased risk of mortality, in this retrospective observational analysis, we did not detect any harm of RAAS inhibitors in patients infected with COVID-19. However, the results should be considered as exploratory and interpreted cautiously.
Comparison of Transatlantic Approaches to Lipid Management: The AHA/ACC/Multisociety Guidelines vs the ESC/EAS Guidelines
The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multisociety (AHA/ACC) guidelines and the 2019 European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines on lipid management were published less than a year apart. Both guidelines focus on reducing cardiovascular risk, but they follow different approaches in terms of methods of risk estimation, definitions of at-risk groups, and treatment goals to achieve this common underlying objective. Both recommend...
Role of Coronary Artery and Thoracic Aortic Calcium as Risk Modifiers to Guide Antihypertensive Therapy in Stage 1 Hypertension (From the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)
The 2017 American blood pressure (BP) guidelines recommended a personalized risk-based approach to treatment in stage 1 hypertension. We sought to establish the utility of coronary artery or thoracic aortic calcium (CAC or TAC) as additional risk modifiers in this setting. We included 1859 Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants with stage 1 hypertension. We compared adjusted HR for the composite outcome of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or heart failure across...
Coronary Artery Calcium for Personalized Allocation of Aspirin in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in 2019: The MESA Study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)
CONCLUSIONS: CAC may be superior to the pooled cohort equations to inform the allocation of aspirin in primary prevention. Implementation of current 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline recommendations together with the use of CAC for further risk assessment may result in a more personalized, safer allocation of aspirin in primary prevention. Confirmation of these findings in experimental settings is needed.
Association of Isolated Diastolic Hypertension as Defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA Blood Pressure Guideline With Incident Cardiovascular Outcomes
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this analysis of US adults, the estimated prevalence of IDH was more common when defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA BP guideline compared with the JNC7 guideline. However, IDH was not significantly associated with increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes.
The association of coronary artery calcium score and mortality risk among smokers: The coronary artery calcium consortium
CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative and quantitative CAC scores can prognosticate risk of all-cause, CVD, CHD, and cancer mortality beyond traditional risk factors among all smokers as well as those eligible for lung cancer screening.
CONCLUSIONS: Industry payments to cardiologists are common, and there are gender differences in these payments on both sides of the Atlantic.
CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, long-standing diabetes has a substantial and independent effect on short-term mortality. Older individuals with prediabetes remained at low mortality risk over a median 5.6 years of follow-up.
Incorporation of Biomarkers Into Risk Assessment for Allocation of Antihypertensive Medication According to the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guideline: A Pooled Cohort Analysis
CONCLUSIONS: Elevations in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T or NT-proBNP identify individuals with elevated BP or hypertension not currently recommended for antihypertensive medication who are at high risk for CV events. The presence of nonelevated biomarkers, even in the setting of stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension, was associated with lower risk. Incorporation of biomarkers into risk assessment algorithms may lead to more appropriate matching of intensive BP control with patient risk.
Association of High-Sensitivity Troponin with Cardiac CT Angiography Evidence of Myocardial and Coronary Disease in a Primary Prevention Cohort of Men: Results from MACS
CONCLUSION: Among primary prevention men with or at risk for HIV, hs-cTnI concentrations were strongly associated with LVMi but were not associated with HIV infection or treatment status or with coronary plaque type or stenosis until the extremes of severity (≥70% stenosis).
This Research Letter examines the distribution of US internal medicine specialists who are able to provide diabetes care.
The Risks of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Following Weight Change in Adults with Diabetes: Results from ADVANCE
CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of substantial lifestyle changes, weight loss may be a warning sign of poor health meriting further workup in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Prevalence estimates and evidence informing treatment targets for thyroid dysfunction largely come from studies of middle-aged adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for abnormal thyroid tests in participants aged ≥65 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (N = 5,392). We measured serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (Anti-TPO), and thyroid...
The Dose and Timing of Fentanyl Impacts on Ticagrelor Absorption and Platelet Inhibition During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The PACIFY Randomized Clinical Trial
CONCLUSIONS: We have previously shown that fentanyl slows absorption of oral ticagrelor, attenuating its effect on platelet inhibition. We now demonstrate this mechanism appears to be dose- and time-dependent.
Usefulness of Coronary Artery Calcium to Identify Adults of Sufficiently High Risk for Atherothrombotic Cardiovascular Events to Consider Low-Dose Rivaroxaban Thromboprophylaxis (from MESA)
Low-dose rivaroxaban was effective in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the COMPASS trial. There is no established role, however, for oral anticoagulants in primary prevention. We evaluated whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring identifies a high-risk primary prevention adult population who may benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban to prevent ASCVD events. We modeled expected outcomes of low-dose rivaroxaban in 5,196 Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
Association between pre-ablation bariatric surgery and atrial fibrillation recurrence in morbidly obese patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation
CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery is associated with a lower AF recurrence after ablation. Morbidly obese patients should be considered for BS prior to AF ablation, though prospective multicentre studies should be performed to confirm our novel finding.
The associations between dietary sodium intake and markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and amino terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), may provide mechanistic insight into the relation between dietary sodium and cardiovascular events. We studied 6,131 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who were free of clinical CVD at baseline. Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess estimated...
Aspirin is one of the most frequently used drugs worldwide and is generally considered effective for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is controversial. Early trials evaluating aspirin for primary prevention, done before the turn of the millennium, suggested reductions in myocardial infarction and stroke (although not mortality), and an increased risk of bleeding. In an effort to balance the risks...
Epidemiology, risk factors, and opportunities for prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals of South Asian ethnicity living in Europe
South Asian (SA) individuals represent a large, growing population in a number of European countries. These individuals, particularly first-generation SA immigrants, are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and coronary heart disease than most other racial/ethnic groups living in Europe. SAs also have an increased risk of stroke compared to European-born individuals. Despite a large body of conclusive evidence, SA-specific cardiovascular health promotion and...
Relation of Isolated Systolic Hypertension and Pulse Pressure to High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin-T and N-Terminal pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Older Adults (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study)
Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and elevated pulse pressure (PP) are common blood pressure (BP) abnormalities in older adults, reflect poor vascular compliance, and can signify risk for cardiovascular outcomes. We sought to characterize the associations of ISH and widened PP with high-sensitivity Troponin-T (hs-cTnT; a marker of myocardial damage) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; a marker of hemodynamic stress) levels in older adults. We performed a cross-sectional...
Response of 1,5-anhydroglucitol level to intensive glucose- and blood-pressure lowering interventions, and its associations with clinical outcomes in the ADVANCE trial
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that 1,5-AG is a marker of risk in adults with type 2 diabetes, but only for microvascular events independently of HbA1c. We found that 1,5-AG was improved (increased) in response to an intensive glucose-lowering intervention, although the independent effect of the blood pressure-lowering intervention on 1,5-AG suggests potential non-glycaemic influences.
Effects of Blood Pressure Lowering on Clinical Outcomes According to Baseline Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The optimal blood pressure (BP) goal in patients with diabetes mellitus remains controversial. We examined whether benefits and risks of intensified antihypertensive therapy in diabetes mellitus are influenced by either baseline BP or cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied 10 948 people with diabetes mellitus, at moderate-to-high risk, in the ADVANCE trial (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation). Cox models were used to...
Cancer survivors might have an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) resulting from toxicities of cancer therapies and a high burden of CVD risk factors. We sought to evaluate the association of cancer survivorship with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) test results. We included 3,512 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who attended visit 5 (2011-2013) and were free of CVD (coronary heart disease,...